Problem 5: Synchronised Candles

Oscillatory flames can be observed when several candles burn next to each other. Two such oscillators can couple with each other, resulting in in-phase or anti-phase synchronisation (depending on the distance between the sets of candles). Explain and investigate this phenomenon.

I. Phenomenon Demonstration

II. Books, Encyclopedia, Discussion and Forum Posts

III. Research Papers

  • Okamoto, K., Kijima, A., Umeno, Y. et al. Synchronization in flickering of three-coupled candle flames. Sci Rep 6, 36145 (2016).
  • Forrester, D. M. (2015). Arrays of coupled chemical oscillators. Scientific Reports, 5(1).
  • Chen, T., Guo, X., Jia, J., & Xiao, J. (2019). Frequency and Phase Characteristics of Candle Flame Oscillation. Scientific Reports, 9(1).
  • Kitahata, H., Taguchi, J., Nagayama, M., Sakurai, T., Ikura, Y., Osa, A., … Miike, H. (2009). Oscillation and Synchronization in the Combustion of Candles. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 113(29), 8164–8168.
  • Manoj, K., Pawar, S.A. & Sujith, R.I. Experimental Evidence of Amplitude Death and Phase-Flip Bifurcation between In-Phase and Anti-Phase Synchronization. Sci Rep 8, 11626 (2018).
  • Dange, S., Pawar, S. A., Manoj, K., & Sujith, R. I. (2019). Role of buoyancy-driven vortices in inducing different modes of coupled behaviour in candle-flame oscillators. AIP Advances, 9(1), 015119. doi:10.1063/1.5078674

  • Fujisawa, N., Imaizumi, K., & Yamagata, T. (2019). Synchronization of Dual Diffusion Flame in Co-flow. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 109924. doi:10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2019.109924

  • Manoj, K., Pawar, S. A., Dange, S., Mondal, S., Sujith, R. I., Surovyatkina, E., & Kurths, J. (2019). Synchronization route to weak chimera in four candle-flame oscillators. Physical Review E, 100(6). doi:10.1103/physreve.100.062204

  • Takagi, K., Gotoda, H., Miyano, T., Murayama, S., & Tokuda, I. T. (2018). Synchronization of two coupled turbulent fires. Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science, 28(4), 045116. doi:10.1063/1.5009896

  • Yang, T., Xia, X., & Zhang, P. (2018). Anti-phase and in-phase flickering of dual pool flames. arXiv preprint arXiv:1803.10411.